meta data for this page

ISM Band

The ISM radio bands are portions of the radio spectrum reserved internationally for industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) purposes, excluding applications in telecommunications. Examples of applications for the use of radio frequency (RF) energy in these bands include RF heating, microwave ovens, and medical diathermy machines. The powerful emissions of these devices can create electromagnetic interference and disrupt radio communication using the same frequency, so these devices are limited to certain bands of frequencies. In general, communications equipment operating in ISM bands must tolerate any interference generated by ISM applications, and users have no regulatory protection from ISM device operation in these bands.

Despite the intent of the original allocations, in recent years the fastest-growing use of these bands has been for short-range, low-power wireless communications systems, since these bands are often approved for such devices, which can be used without a government license, as would otherwise be required for transmitters; ISM frequencies are often chosen for this purpose as they already must tolerate interference issues. Cordless phones, Bluetooth devices, near-field communication (NFC) devices, garage door openers, baby monitors, and wireless computer networks (Wi-Fi) may all use the ISM frequencies, although these low-power transmitters are not considered to be ISM devices.

The ISM bands

designationMidbandFrequency RangeAvailabilityApplication AreasApplications in the band
-6,78 MHz6,765 - 6,795 MHzaccording to local regulationsmobile services
-13 MHz13,553 - 13,567 MHzWorldwidemobile services, aeronautical communication (helicon double-layer ion thruster)Wiegand, RFID, NFC
-27 MHz26,957 - 27,283 MHzWorldwideCB, mobile services, aeronautical communication NFC
-40,68 MHz40,66 - 40,7 MHzWorldwidesatellite broadcast communication, mobile services
-433,92 MHz433,05 - 434,79 MHzEurope, Africaradio amateur communication RFID, NFC, DASH7, HC-12 Arduino modul
UHF ISMUSA: 908,42 MHz
Europe: 868,42 MHz
USA: 902 - 928 MHz
Europe: 865 - 868 MHz
radio amateur communicationZigBee, RFID, NFC, DASH7, Z-Wave
S-band ISM¹2,4 GHz2,4 - 2,5 GHzWorldwideradio amateur and satellite communication, microwave power transmission, induction heating, wireless modemsBluetooth, Bluetooth LE, Wi-Fi, ZigBee, RFID, NFC, Thread, MiWi, nRF24
C-band ISM²5,7 GHz5,725 - 5,875 GHzWorldwideradio amateur and satellite communication, wireless modemsWi-Fi
UWB3,1..10,6 GHz3,1 - 10,6 GHzWorldwideUWB, “pulse radio”
Ku-band11 GHz10,95 - 12,7 GHzWorldwidesatellite communicationStarlink Downlink
Ku-band14 GHz14,0 - 14,5 GHzWorldwidesatellite communicationStarlink Uplink
Ka-band18 GHz17,3 - 18,6 GHzWorldwidesatellite communicationStarlink Downlink
Ka-band28 GHz27,5 - 29,1 GHzWorldwidesatellite communicationStarlink Uplink
-61,25 GHz61 - 61,5 GHzaccording to local regulationssatellite communication
-122,5 GHz122 - 123 GHzaccording to local regulationssatellite communication
-245 GHz244 - 246 GHzaccording to local regulationssatellite communication

¹: The S-band frequency range: 2-4 GHz
²: The C-band frequency range: 4-8 GHz